Travertine is a sedimentary rock composed almost entirely of calcium carbonate and formed by the accumulation of calcium carbonate deposited by hot springs. Many of the old Roman ‘termas’ or baths were located in the rich travertine-producing region of Tivoli, south of Rome in the Rapolano area in Tuscany. Travertine was the stone of choice of ancient Rome. Travertine is distinguished from other sedimentary rocks by its ‘spongy’ texture and a large number of holes varying in size and shape. Travertine colors are usually light ivory and beige, but impurities and iron compounds found in the stone are responsible for the creation of red, yellow, and dark brown colors. Travertine is durable and performs well in all types of applications, but must be properly sealed and maintained. The distinctive holes may be filled or left natural (unfilled), according to its proposed application and desired aesthetic appeal. Until the 1980s, Italy had a near-monopoly on the world travertine market; now significant supplies are quarried in mainly Turkey, Iran, Mexico, and Peru.